Field Dressing is the process of removing the internal organs of hunted game, and is necessary step in preserving meat from animals harvested in the wild. Field dressing must be done as soon as possible in order to ensure rapid body heat loss, and prevent bacteria from growing on the surface of the carcass. Field dressing helps maintain the overall quality of the meat. It also makes it considerably easier for a hunter to carry larger game from the hunt area.
In contrast, but on a related note, processing or butchering is the act of dividing an animal carcass into usable cuts of meat that can be consumed or preserved. Regardless if a food animal comes from hunting or farming, its carcass will need to be butchered or processed.