Simply put, navigation is the art and science of guiding a person or vehicle from one place to another. The survivalist has knowledge and skill in reading various map types, particularly topographic (elevation) maps as well the ability to apply the use of a compass to aid in navigation.
Modern advances have given the survivalist excellent tools for navigation, particularly through the use of handheld GPS devices. Such aids should not be ignored as they provide distinct advantages in accuracy and speed and error reduction – when they are available and functioning. But, the survivalist must consider events that would render GPS technology unusable. Anything that would knock out GPS satellites (solar flare, malicious rocket attack, etc) or anything that would harm the handheld device itself would leave you with little to go on.
A map and compass don’t require batteries, rely on no outside forces to function properly (aside from magnetism) and are plenty accurate to get you from point A to B. Therefore, this age old method of land navigation is the perfect go-to for the survivalist. LandNav with map and compass needs to be practiced in the field so that you are comfortable enough to trust your navigational abilities when it counts.
Even without a map and compass, the survivalist should have methods at his disposal that allow him/her to divine the general cardinal directions so that a rough route can be plotted.